1. What is Access Denial?
Centre has the authority to block specific addresses from sending and receiving USDC. This is also referred to as “blocklisting” or “access denial.” When an address is blocklisted or denied access, it can no longer send or receive USDC and all of the USDC controlled by that address is blocked. The USDC Network Access Denial Policy (“Access Denial Policy”) sets forth the policy on access denial to individual addresses on the Ethereum, Solana, Avalanche, Stellar, Flow, Hedera, Algorand and Tron blockchains. As described in the Access Denial Policy and further below, Centre requires a legal order issued by a U.S. court to freeze or blocklist USDC assets at a particular address.
2. Can Centre Seize or Recover USDC and Transfer it to Another Address?
No. Centre is only able to blocklist addresses, essentially freezing USDC assets in place. Centre is not able to access USDC or any other assets held at third-party addresses, or reverse or recall transactions sent to third-party addresses. Centre does not custody wallets, nor does Centre hold or manage USDC reserves. Centre does not have the ability to issue new USDC. A law enforcement agency seeking to recover or seize USDC assets would need to contact the individual or entity controlling the wallet address where that USDC is held.
3. If USDC Assets Were Erroneously Sent to the Wrong Address Can Centre Recover Them?
No. Centre is only able to blocklist addresses, essentially freezing USDC assets in place. Centre is not able to access USDC or any other assets held at third-party addresses, or reverse or recall transactions sent to third-party addresses. Centre does not custody wallets, nor does Centre hold or manage USDC reserves. Centre does not have the ability to issue new USDC for erroneous transfers or wallets with lost private keys. In order to recover assets (including assets sent to a third party address by mistake), you will need to contact the individual or entity controlling the wallet address where that USDC is held.
4. What Notice Does Centre Provide to Owners of Access Denied Addresses?
Access denial is publicly visible on the blockchain. As a result, all access denial decisions will be immediately visible to wallet owners and anyone else viewing the blockchain.
5. Can Centre Deny Access to Addresses for Wrapped USDC?
No. Centre is only able to deny access to native USDC held in wallets on native USDC chains, which currently include the Ethereum, Solana, Avalanche, Stellar, Flow, Hedera, Algorand, and Tron blockchains.
6. What is Required to Ask Centre to Deny Access to an Address?
As outlined in the Access Denial Policy, a legal order issued by a U.S. court is required to deny access to an address.
7. What Details Must Be Included in a Legal Order?
The order must identify the address to be denied access and state that the Centre Consortium shall effectuate the freeze of the USDC associated with that address on the relevant blockchain. The order should not request that “all assets” be frozen in an address, since Centre is unable to block or deny access to assets other than USDC and will not be able to honor this type of legal order.
8. Does Centre Honor International Legal Orders?
In order to execute a foreign order, a formal Mutual Legal Assistance Treaty (“MLAT”) request, or letter rogatory, sent through the U.S. Department of Justice, is required. Alternatively, you can apply to domesticate your judgment in a U.S. court of competent jurisdiction. Centre’s policy is to promptly respond to orders that are properly issued via MLAT or letter rogatory, or domesticated through a U.S. court, upon proper service of process.
9. How Do I Deliver Legal Process to Centre?
All legal orders or law enforcement requests should be sent to the email address USDC@centre.io. To help ensure the legal process Centre receives is in the form and substance the issuing authority authorized, Centre requires submission of the complete legal process, including attachments, in an uneditable Portable Document Format (PDF).